Information collected at first hand by the researchers. The material from an interview or questionnaire you conduct yourself is primary data.
Secondary Data is data that has already been collected by someone else.
When an identical twin is diagnosed with schizophrenia, then the other twin is studied to measure the concordance rate with which both of the twins get schizophrenia. This is compared with the incidence of both of a pair of non-identical twins getting schizophrenia. This is because while twins reared together will share the same environment only identical twins share the same genes. Twins are genetically tested to ensure they are identical. Researchers will use hospital records to identify the first individual of the pair to be diagnosed.
Structured - The Structured Interview is a data-gathering methodology that involves a standard set of questions asked in the same manner and order.
Detailed information can be obtained, also avoids oversimplifying the complex issues.
The participants point of view is taken into account more, because that is the main thing which the experimenter is looking for.
Unstructured interviews may encourage some people to be more relaxed when answering, and also more truthful, as the situation is not as scary as first seemed.
Hard to analyse if the data is mainly qualitative, as drawing up conclusions with other data would not be easy without figures.
The time-consuming factor is key, because this is what puts many people off taking part in an interview, and also, after time they will start to say anything, just to make it go faster.
Fairly expensive (Gathering participants in one place to do the interviews).
Demand characteristics, which is when the participant may give answers which they think the experimenter wants to see.
The DSM was developed in the USA and is widely used in many other cultures. This is valid if mental disorders are clearly defined with specific symptoms and features. However, there are three issues that affect the validity of diagnosis across cultures:
Every society sets standards according to which it expects its members to behave.
These standards are called social norms. There are:
Anyone who goes against these rules of is seen as abnormal. The behaviour cannot be considered abnormal as long as society accepts it.
This definition is not always useful because breaking social norms can be worthwhile. Societies can use this definition to gain social control; anybody who does not agree with the government can be diagnosed as abnormal.
Another problem is that norms change over time and that if one type of behaviour is deemed to be normal in one culture, it may be abnormal in another culture.
It enables individuals in need to acquire help. The appropriate help can be found for the individual who displays such behaviour. This may be vital, as some people with a mental disorder are unable to motivate themselves to seek assistance.
Social Approach: Social Causation (Schizophrenia)
Biological Approach: The Dopamine Hypothesis (Schizophrenia)
Phobias are classified as anxiety disorders and are the most common of all anxiety disorders.
Three categories of phobia: