Within this unit, there are a few studies/content that you may remember for AS that is also used for Criminology and Child Psychology For example, eyewitness testimony, was Loftus & Palmer's study is mentioned again. Loftus & Palmer's study is one of the key studies you need to remember/learn for Unit 3 Criminology.
Methodology for Crim is very important as you will need to describe and evaluate the methodology in terms of reliability, validity, and ethics. The methodology used in A2 are the same used in AS, but you need to learn them in more detail and be able to evaluate them enough for as much as 12 marks. The criminology section looks at Laboratory & Field experiments.
Child Psychology's methodology is as important as it looks at Naturalistic observations, structured observations, case studies, cross-cultural studies and longitudinal studies. You will also have to evaluate this in terms of reliability, validity, and ethics.
Here we will go through the majority of the content in this section, but again, if you need more information feel free to look at www.getrevising.co.uk.
The evaluation for some sections and studies will not be enough for full marks, so be sure to expand on the points in the exam. The goal is to summarise information, such detail is not always provided.
Hopefully for this section you will gather as much information as well as Word & PPT documents to aid your revision/learning.
Specification for Unit 3: Download spec
January 2013 Examiners report: Download PDF
Used to assess witness effectiveness
Evaluation of Laboratory experiments
Used to assess witness effectiveness
Evaluation of field experiments
Comparison of Lab & Field
- Ppts can't be asked for consent or it will give away the whole aim
E.g. A real car crash compared to a video of one
Criminal Psych song. Not great but useful when remembering the little points
- A warm, continuous, loving relationship with a person who provides a safe haven and secure base from which to explore, which is between the primary caregiver and the child.
- When the attachment between the child and the primary caregiver is deprived through some sort of separation (which can be long term or short term. This can happen if the child or the attachment figure goes into hospital.
- This is displayed in infants from around 7 or 8 months, where they will cling to their attachment figure if a stranger tries to interact with them and will be distressed by separation from their attachment figure.
- Genes that help the organism survive are passed on through reproduction.
- An infant's lack of an attachment. Privation is thought of never having had an attachment figure.
- This is the separation from the mother or main caregiver, which is a short term separation.
- This is about the child's development and various aspects of the developing child.
Evaluation of naturalistic observations
Structured observations are those made in a situation set up with careful controls instead of in a natural situation
Evaluation of structured observations
Case studies are in depth studies, usually of single individuals, or sometimes a small group
Evaluation of case studies
These are studies which are carried out in more than one culture.
Evaluating cross-cultural studies
Evaluation of longitudinal studies
More key terms:
- A single attachment for the child - a warm loving relationship with one person
- If the mother-child bond was broken early in life this would lead to problems with social, emotional and intellectual development
- Lack of having normal affection, shame or sense of responsibility
- Following the first moving object a geese would see after birth
Bowlby's theory of attachment and maternal deprivation
Studies which Support Bowlby's work
Bowlby's theory about the evolutionary basis of attachment
Robertson's naturalistic observation
- Protest: the child cries and shows anger and fear
- Despair: the child becomes very distressed and cries a lot
- Detachment: the child settles down and stops crying
How negative effects of deprivation and separation can be reduced
Ways in which they can be reduced
Ainsworth's strange situation test and studies of attachment
Research into privation
Daycare and its effect on children
Theory of mind
Extreme male brain