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It is how a stimulus is associated with a response, and it can explain how someone can be conditioned into a response from a stimulus that wouldn’t normally happen.
Classical conditioning is learning by association.
UCS: unconditioned stimulus
UCR: unconditioned response
NS: neutral stimulus
CS: conditioned stimulus
CR: conditioned response
Pavlov’s dog explanation:
Food = saliva
Bell + food = saliva
NS UCS UCR
Bell = saliva
Primary, secondary, negative, positive, punishment
An important aspect of operate conditioning as the desired behaviour may not be immediate, therefore can’t be reinforced. The outcome (desired behaviour) may have to be shaped by reinforcing steps towards that desired behaviour.
Shaping is when behaviour is arrived at by:
This is a ONE step “cure”, where clients are placed in a safe environment and then confront their fear head-on.
It can either be done in vivo (in a real, live situation)
Or it can be done in an illustrated or imagined scene (implosion therapy), where the fear is destroyed privately.
Evaluation of operant and classical conditioning in terms of explaining human behaviour:
+Both Operate and Classical conditioning are conditioning in a Lab experiment, this means there are high levels of control, easy to isolate and control and shows cause-and-effect relationships. In a lab it also adds a scientific value.
+Therapies: evidence for real life application
-Animals are used and therefore not generalisable to humans (different brains)
-Lab experiments and animals are being used means there is a lack of validity.
Social Learning Theory:
Theorists suggest we learn through observational learning.
Models behavior rewarded means that you’re more likely to imitate
Models behavior punished means that you’re less likely to imitate
We learn how to imitate behavior by watching others.
Cognitive processes in observational learning
Social Learning Theory as an explanation of human behavior
+There is a great deal of experimental evidence to support the theory and the behavior that was learned is visible.
+Rise to practical application e.g. in therapies
-Studies often are carried out on animals and therefore are hard to generalize to humans.
Study to support the SLT
Bobo Doll Experiment
Little Albert study
Pavlov's Dog Experiment